Sheet music for Russian techno - Kommersant
The White House approved the concept of technological development of the Russian Federation until 2030 - the document sets the guidelines for state policy on the way to "technological sovereignty", innovative economic growth and import substitution. The government will focus numerous support measures on priority technologies and products - the volume of budgetary and private financing of the mechanisms of the concept is estimated at 3 trillion rubles. The work involves three areas - this is the reduction of the gap between science and production within the framework of large innovative projects with state participation, the involvement of business in innovation through financial incentives and deregulation, and the implementation of "megaprojects" for the production of high-tech products with state support not only for the final output, but also for the technological cycle . Within a month, the Ministry of Economy and the Ministry of Education and Science will present a plan for implementing the strategy.
Mikhail Mishustin approved the Concept of Technological Development of the Russian Federation until 2030 — the document was developed by First Deputy Prime Minister Andrei Belousov with the participation of business, the scientific, expert business community and taking into account the strategic sessions of the government to determine work priorities, taking into account sanctions. “In connection with the sanctions, the previous model of reproduction of technological innovations, relying on machine-building imports and technology imports, has ceased to be relevant. In fact, for the first time in 25 years, since the 2000s, we have an independent subject of technological policy,” Andrey Belousov said.
The concept is aimed at achieving “technological sovereignty” and contains three enlarged goals: by 2030, to ensure national control over the reproduction of priority technologies, innovative economic growth and sustainable development of production systems. In practice, this should lead to the creation of their own technology development lines, an increase in the innovative activity of companies and the emergence of domestic high-tech goods and services on the market. The indicators of achieving the goals will be an increase in internal costs for research and development (by 45%) and innovative activity in industry and other sectors (by 2.3 times), an increase in the volume of innovative goods, works and services (by 1.9 times). The work will be supervised by the Ministry of Education and Science, the Ministry of Economy and the Ministry of Industry and Trade.
For the sake of “techno-sovereignty”, the government expects to launch the process of developing priority technologies in the Russian Federation. Their list will be developed and published later, on a larger scale we are talking about end-to-end (intersectoral and long-term) and critical (needed now) technologies. Now their development is hindered by the gap between science and production (science is focused on publications, and innovation is a by-product; production is based on imports). Research consortiums, technological holdings and “full innovation cycle mechanisms” of the most important innovation projects of national importance and comprehensive scientific and technological programs should “bring together” science and production.
Technological developments may be in demand in the implementation of import substitution projects - this is the subject of the third section of the document. So far, import substitution has been hampered by the focus on the final product without taking into account technology, availability of components and control of means of production. The concept proposes a new mechanism - the launch of complex "mega-projects" for the production of high-tech products, for each of which a list of necessary equipment, components, the need for personnel, technologies will be determined, and state support will be provided at each stage for full import substitution (in the absence of diversified external suppliers). This should create a demand for technology - yesterday the government announced that by 2030 10-15 mega-projects will be launched to produce lines of new complex equipment, mobile equipment and medicines in such industries as aircraft and shipbuilding, electronics and radio-electronics, engine building , railway and transport engineering, machine tool building and pharmaceuticals.
The second, institutional part of the concept is aimed at attracting private players to innovation through state support. The measures should solve the problems of insufficient funding for R&D, remove administrative and criminal risks in the way of entrepreneurs (in particular, we are talking about the right to take risks) and support the marketing of products. The document de facto structures disparate mechanisms for stimulating scientific activity and business innovation activity into a single user path. Now there are about 200 tools to support technological innovation that require inventory, consolidation and focusing, the volume of financing of the concept mechanisms is estimated at 3 trillion rubles. (55% of the budget and 45% of private funds). By 2030, the volume should increase one and a half times with a decrease in the budget share to 45%.
It should be noted, however, that in many respects the efforts of those who will have to implement the document will de facto be directed to reengineering and reinventing technologies already existing on the global market, access to which the Russian Federation has lost due to sanctions in connection with its military operation in Ukraine, and the need to invest in repeating the path already traveled by the world economy can be a significant brake on the way to the implementation of the concept; however, the government recognizes the need to pay these costs partly with budget money.
Experts on the Concept of Technological Development of the Russian Federation until 2030
The adoption of the concept is a long overdue issue, says Leonid Gokhberg, First Vice-Rector of the Higher School of Economics. “Over the past two decades, we have not had an effective framework document in the field of innovation and technology policy,” he says. Leonid Gokhberg recalled that the HSE is conducting analytical research on mapping state policy measures in the field of science, technology and innovation - on this map there are several hundred tools that are focused on different stages of the technology life cycle and solve different problems. “Many of them turned out to be productive, for example, support for small innovative businesses or special investment contracts. However, the problem is that they are all scattered, as a rule, they were designed within the framework of different regulatory decisions, which are far from always interconnected, ”the expert points out. According to him, in the absence of a common systemic framework, they worked as they did, in many cases the measures proved to be completely ineffective.
Leonid Gokhberg considers it important that when preparing the concept, serious attention was paid to the selection of measures that are relevant specifically for the technology sector. They were inventoried and filtered in terms of expediency and efficiency. Another important point is that all measures are focused on specific technological priorities. Thus, structuring policy measures by life cycle stages, linking them together within a single concept and focusing on priorities give hope that the measures included in the Concept will be effective.
According to Igor Drozdov, Chairman of the Board of the Skolkovo Foundation, the adoption of the Concept will help accelerate the development of additional measures to support small technology companies, including those aimed at stimulating demand for their products from large customers. Alexander Vedyakhin, First Deputy Chairman of the Management Board of Sberbank, notes that the approval of the Concept is an important stage in the formation of the state technology policy, which creates the foundation for the accelerated implementation of scientific results in business activities and in the daily life of the population.
According to Kirill Varlamov, director of the Internet Initiatives Development Fund (IIDF), the Concept recognizes the dysfunctional state of the national innovation system. The document contains "diagnoses" and "treatments" that are recognized and proposed in many ways for the first time in documents of this level. “In itself, a correct understanding of the state of the country gives hope for the mobilization of efforts to build effective processes of scientific and technological and innovative and technological development,” he says. The document makes an attempt to launch holistic mechanisms for creating innovative products in demand, developing technology companies, and supporting technology transfer, notes Kirill Varlamov. Meanwhile, in his opinion, the focused development of technology companies, including for the formation of a technological pole in new areas, is rather difficult to ensure without a single responsible among state development institutions or other actors who ensure coordination and achievement of target indicators for the development of projects, especially taking into account the goal of achieving a fivefold increase in the number of large technology companies. In addition, the involvement of the results of intellectual activity created with the use of budgetary funds into the economic circulation remains a poorly overcome barrier, the expert believes. In general, he sees it reasonable to develop a phased implementation of the Concept for a better focus on priority tasks.
Tech alliances are stretching across the EAEU
Issues of technological development were discussed yesterday in a broader format - within the framework of the Supreme Council of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU). Ideas to harmonize the industrial policy and import substitution programs of the EAEU, revived in 2022 due to the aggravation of supply and demand gaps in the market of the “five” after the imposition of sanctions on the Russian Federation as the largest partner, resulted in the decision to create a separate intergovernmental commission for this (see “Kommersant” June 22, 2022). Yesterday, Vladimir Putin "in practical terms" proposed to the "five" countries to "agree and implement" common priorities for technological transformation and innovative cooperation, as well as to think about the formation of "Eurasian technological alliances", including with third countries - to launch on the territory EAEU "new science-intensive industries". De facto, the Russian Federation proposes that the members of the union jointly build a common framework and market for the development of technologies that are critical for “technological sovereignty”. The first "external" contenders for cooperation within the framework of "alliances" may be partners in the CIS and SCO, as well as observer countries - primarily Uzbekistan. As President of Kazakhstan Kassym-Zhomart Tokayev noted, for this the status of observers must be developed in terms of their accession to individual agreements of the "five", as well as participation in specific cooperation projects.
In the meantime, within the framework of the Eurasian “five”, a decision has been formalized on financial support for cooperation projects - yesterday the presidents signed a protocol with amendments to the agreement on the EAEU, allowing the Council of the Eurasian Economic Commission to make decisions on providing financial assistance to them from the budget of the union (in 2024, we are talking about in the amount of 1.7 billion rubles). It is proposed to spend them on subsidizing interest rates on loans, projects in which at least three countries of the union participate, to increase the level of interaction between industry in the union, technology transfer and their joint development (see Kommersant dated October 24, 2022).